Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI)

A Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) is an injury caused by repetitive tasks or sustained or awkward positions. Also known as repetitive strain injury, this condition can affect people of all ages and occupations, from athletes and musicians to office workers and assembly line workers.

This debilitating condition can cause pain, discomfort, and limited mobility, significantly impacting daily activities and quality of life.

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Common Types of Repetitive Stress Injury

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

One of the most well-known RSIs, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm, becomes compressed or squeezed at the wrist. This compression leads to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the hand and fingers.

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

This repetitive stress injury affects the tendons in the outer part of the elbow, causing pain and tenderness. Despite its name, tennis elbow can occur due to various repetitive activities, not just playing tennis. It commonly affects individuals who perform repetitive gripping or wrist movements.

Golfer’s Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis)

Similar to tennis elbow, Golfer’s elbow affects the tendons on the inner side of the elbow. It causes pain and inflammation, particularly where the tendons attach to the bony bump on the inside of the elbow. Activities involving gripping or repetitive wrist flexion can contribute to this condition.


Tendinitis refers to inflammation or irritation of a tendon, the thick cords that attach muscles to bones. Repetitive motions, especially those involving overhead movements or forceful exertion, can lead to tendinitis in various parts of the body, such as the shoulder, knee, or Achilles tendon.


Bursitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion and lubricate joints. It commonly affects areas such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, or knee, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Plantar Fasciitis

Engaging in activities that involve repetitive stress on the feet, such as running, jogging, dancing, or standing for prolonged periods, can strain the plantar fascia and contribute to the development of plantar fasciitis.

This condition is characterized by pain and inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot.

Causes of Repetitive Stress Injuries

RSIs often develop gradually over time, as repetitive movements place stress on the affected muscles and tendons. Several factors can contribute to the development of RSIs, including:

Repetitive Motions

Performing the same motions or activities repeatedly without adequate rest can strain the muscles and tendons, leading to injury.

Forceful Exertion

Activities that require forceful or prolonged exertion, such as lifting heavy objects or using excessive grip strength, can increase the risk of RSIs.

Poor Ergonomics

Incorrect posture, improper workstation setup, and uncomfortable seating can contribute to RSIs by placing additional strain on the muscles and tendons.

Inadequate Rest and Recovery

Failing to allow sufficient time for rest and recovery between repetitive tasks can prevent the body from repairing and healing damaged tissues, increasing the likelihood of RSIs.

Symptoms of Repetitive Stress Injuries

The symptoms of RSIs can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

  • Pain or tenderness in the affected area
  • Stiffness or reduced range of motion
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Weakness or loss of strength
  • Swelling or inflammation
  • Difficulty performing everyday tasks related to the affected area

Diagnosis of RSIs

Diagnosing RSIs typically involves a thorough evaluation of the individual’s medical history, symptoms, and physical examination. In some cases, imaging tests such as X-rays, ultrasound, or MRI scans may be ordered to assess the extent of tissue damage and rule out other possible causes of symptoms.

Additionally, nerve conduction studies may be performed to evaluate nerve function in conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome.

Treatments for a Repetitive Stress Injury

The treatment of RSIs aims to relieve symptoms, promote healing, and prevent further injury. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment options may include:

Rest and Activity Modification

Avoiding or modifying activities that aggravate symptoms can help reduce strain on the affected muscles and tendons, allowing them to heal.

Physical Therapy

Specific exercises and stretches prescribed by a physical therapist can help strengthen muscles, improve flexibility, and promote proper alignment to alleviate pain and prevent future injuries.

Chiropractic Care

Chiropractic care for repetitive stress injuries often involves manual adjustments to realign the spine and joints, reducing pressure on nerves and promoting proper musculoskeletal function. Additionally, chiropractors may employ therapeutic techniques such as massage, stretching exercises, and ergonomic advice to address underlying imbalances and alleviate symptoms.

Ergonomic Modifications

Making ergonomic adjustments to workstations, tools, and equipment to improve posture and reduce strain on the body can help prevent RSIs in the workplace.

Bracing or Splinting

Wearing a brace or splint can provide support and immobilization to the affected area, promoting healing and preventing further damage.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, may be recommended to alleviate pain and inflammation associated with a repetitive stress injury.

Steroid Injections

In cases of severe pain or inflammation, corticosteroid injections may be administered directly into the affected area to provide temporary relief.


In rare cases where conservative treatments fail to provide relief, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or release compressed nerves.


Repetitive stress injuries can have a significant impact on daily life and productivity, but with proper understanding, prevention, and treatment, individuals can effectively manage these conditions and prevent long-term complications.

By incorporating ergonomic principles, practicing proper body mechanics, and seeking timely medical attention when needed, individuals can reduce the risk of RSIs and maintain optimal musculoskeletal health.


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